1 Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark2 unknown
In early 2000, neither a comprehensive upstream system nor an all-encompassing downstream approach to CO2 emissions permit trading seems feasible in Poland. However, a pilot emissions trading system in the power and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) sector isthought to be a realistic option in the near future. A comprehensive upstream approach would require permits for the carbon contained in fossil fuels produced or imported in Poland. It is ruled out due to the perceived difficulties of the inclusion ofthe coal sector in such a system. While inclusion of the gas sector, and especially of the oil sector, seems possible within a relatively short time, relying on an upstream approach without the coal sector is not advisable. Once the restructuring of thecoal sector as well as the privatization of the gas and oil sector is advanced, an upstream approach might become an option again. A comprehensive downstream approach would regulate CO2 emissions at their source, that is mostly at point of combustion offossil fuels. A system which includes industry, households and transport can be assumed to be infeasible. Instead, a "core program" was examined, which would focus on power and heat generation as well as energy intensive industries. Such an approach wasfound feasible in principle. Currently, however, only the largest emitters could be easily integrated in a reliable system. Drawing the line between those included and those excluded from such a partial system requires careful analysis. Including allenterprises in the relevant sectors would require significant improvements in monitoring and reporting reliability. A pilot emissions permit trading system could be introduced in the professional power and heat sector. Here, awareness concerning theinstrument was found to be high and the system could be based on monitoring requirements already required by law. Gradual inclusion of more relevant sectors and eventual combination with an upstream component to include oil refineries, and with them thegrowing CO2 emissions from transport, seem possible. Such a pilot program would allow firms and the policy maker to gather relevant experiences for the possible future introduction of a comprehensive system and for the emerging international emissionstrading system.To determine whether a pilot system is desirable, however, an extensive and comparative analysis of different climate protection policy options is still needed for Poland. It should include a close look at the implications of EU climateprotection policies and the effects of the liberalization of international electricity markets on domestic policy options.