Nielsen, Per Sieverts2; Næraa, Rikke3; Karlsson, Kenneth3
1 Department of Buildings and Energy, Technical University of Denmark2 Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark3 Technical University of Denmark
Cooking is the main energy consuming activity in Ghana. This is mainly due to a generally low material standard of living, but also because the cooking process itself is energy inefficient. The fuel for cooking in Ghana is mainly biomass either in the form of wood, agricultural residues or charcoal. An energy chain for the cooking process is established and the possible conservation options are surveyed in kitchen performance tests in Abodom in the tropical zone of Ghana. The energy consumption for the food preparation has been measured and energy saving options have been determined for some parts of the energy chain. The results show that the possible options for energy conservation through the entire energy chain of the present technology are at least of the same magnitude as that involved in just switching to a more efficient biomass stove. The heat loss is largest while simmering when the boiling point has been reached. Most cooks tend to continue using a high heat supply even though it is not necessary. This process is often carried out without lid on the pot even though the use of lid will reduce the energy loss considerably. It is also concluded that the average fuelwood consumption in Abodom per household (tropical zone) only is 20% higher than the per family fuelwood consumption in the northern part of Ghana (Guinea Savanna). A larger difference in fuelwood consumption per household is normally assumed between households in tropical zones and in savanna zones.