1 Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark2 Networks Technology and Service Platforms, Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark3 Copenhagen Center for Health Technology, Center, Technical University of Denmark
This thesis addresses selected topics of energy management in home environments and ICT for the Smart Grid. However, those two topics are vast and only a few aspects of them have been discussed. This thesis focuses on providing a home energy management solution based on a technology independent platform which guaranties interoperability, as well as scalability and flexibility. Therefore, a home gateway prototype has been developed in JAVA. This implementation offers the required capabilities for a Home Energy Management System, i.e. it enables the user to monitor and control the home devices, in addition to providing energy management strategies to reduce electricity consumption. Reducing energy consumption in home environments has become crucial to meet the "20-20-20" targets set by European Commission Climate Action. However, reducing energy in home environments is not sufficient. The power grid has to be upgraded and improved into the Smart Grid. The Smart Grid will enable the power grid with new functionalities that will reduce power consumption, efficiently distribute energy and make a more robust and resilient power grid. Among the Smart Grid functionalities, there is Advanced Metering Infrastructure and Demand Response, which require a more active participation from customers. These two functionalities requirements regarding ICT are studied and a communication network for them is proposed. Power Line Communication has been considered the most suitable technology that fulfils all of the AMI and DR requirements. Specifically, G.hnem recommendation has been evaluated for the communication between custormers and utilities. Utilities will communicate with the customers via the so called smart meter found in users' premises. This smart meter will also be able to communicate with the home getaway of the Home Energy Management System. This exchange of information between the customers and the utilities is important as customers will have a more active role in the Smart Grid by participating in Demand Response mechanisms. The presented Home Energy Management System in this thesis participates in reducing demand peaks by setting a maximum household consumption that cannot be exceeded during peak hours. There are two main motivations for reducing peak hours: (i) to avoid power shortages and blackouts, (ii) to reduce non-renewable energy consumption. During peak hours, utilities are forced to rapidly increase their electricity production in order to fulfil the demand. Usually non-renewable energies are used to reach the demand as, in general, renewable energies, such as solar and wind energies, cannot be controlled. It is clear that AMI and DR will need to communicate with customers, who will become actively involved, in order to achieve the "20-20-20". In order to ensure, the custormers' participation in Home Energy Management plays an important role, as most of this communication could be done automatically and without scarifying users' comfort. This will require the user's management of the Home Energy Management settings in order to fulfil his preferences. The herein Home Energy Management System and AMI and DR proposed architecture have taken into consideration all the objectives and requirements to create a successful solution.