A three-dimensional (3D) conductor-based conformal electrically small antenna is obtained using a topology optimization method. The optimization method distributes a certain amount of conductive material to a designated design domain such that the material layout defines an electrically small radiator fed by a coaxial cable over a ground plane. Preliminary investigations show that topology optimization method produced a conformal ESA design that has a radiation efficiency of approximately 80% at 300 MHz.
Ieee Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 2008. Ap-s 2008, 2008, p. 1-4
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IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 2008.