The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Chinese hook snout carp, Opsariichthys bidens, was newly determined using the long and accurate polymerase chain reaction method. The 16,611-nucleotide mitogenome contains 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes (12S, 16S), 22 tRNA genes, and a noncoding control region. We use these data and homologous sequence data from multiple other ostariophysan fishes in a phylogenetic evaluation to test hypothesis pertaining to codon usage pattern of O. bidens mitochondrial protein genes as well as to re-examine the ostariophysan phylogeny. The mitochondrial genome of O. bidens reveals an alternative pattern of vertebrate mitochondrial evolution. For the mitochondrial protein genes of O. bidens, the most frequently used codon generally ends with either A or C, with C preferred over A for most fourfold degenerate codon families; the relative synonymous codon usage of G-ending codons is greatly elevated in all categories. The codon usage pattern of O. bidens mitochondrial protein genes is remarkably different from the general pattern found previously in the relatively closely related zebrafish and most other vertebrate mitochondria. Nucleotide bias at third codon positions is the main cause of codon bias in the mitochondrial protein genes of O. bidens, as it is biased particularly in favor of C over A. Bayesian analysis of 12 concatenated mitochondrial protein sequences for O. bidens and 46 other teleostean taxa supports the monophyly of Cypriniformes and Otophysi and results in a robust estimate of the otophysan phylogeny.