1 Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet2 Molecular Integrative Physiology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet3 Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, São Paulo4 Integrated Physiology, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet5 Molecular Integrative Physiology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet6 Integrated Physiology, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet
We examined intra- and extracellular H(2)O(2) and NO formation during contractions in primary rat skeletal muscle cell culture. The fluorescent probes DCFH-DA/DCFH (2,7-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate/2,7-dichlorofluorescein) and DAF-2-DA/DAF-2 (4,5-diaminofluorescein-diacetate/4,5-diaminofluorescein) were used to detect H(2)O(2) and NO, respectively. Intense electrical stimulation of muscle cells increased the intra- and extracellular DCF fluorescence by 171% and 105%, respectively, compared with control nonstimulated cells (p <.05). The addition of glutathione (GSH) or Tiron prior to electrical stimulation inhibited the intracellular DCFH oxidation (p <.05), whereas the addition of GSH-PX + GSH inhibited the extracellular DCFH oxidation (p <.05). Intense electrical stimulation also increased (p <.05) the intra- and extracellular DAF-2 fluorescence signal by 56% and 20%, respectively. The addition of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA) completely removed the intra- and extracellular DAF-2 fluorescent signal. Our results show that H(2)O(2) and NO are formed in skeletal muscle cells during contractions and suggest that a rapid release of H(2)O(2) and NO may constitute an important defense mechanism against the formation of intracellular (*)OH and (*)ONOO. Furthermore, our data show that DCFH and DAF-2 are suitable probes for the detection of ROS and NO both intra- and extracellularly in skeletal muscle cell cultures.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 2003, Vol 35, Issue 5, p. 455-464