This paper deals with the analysis of gravity anomaly and precise levelling in conjunction with GPS-Levelling data for the computation of a gravimetric geoid and an estimate of the height system bias parameter N-o for the vertical datum in Pakistan by means of least squares collocation technique. The long term objective is to obtain a regional geoid (or quasi-geoid) modeling using a combination of local data with a high degree and order Earth gravity model (EGM) and to determine a bias (if there is one) with respect to a global mean sea surface. An application of collocation with the optimal covariance parameters has facilitated to achieve gravimetric height anomalies in a global geocentric datum. Residual terrain modeling (RTM) technique has been used in combination with the EGM96 for the reduction and smoothing of the gravity data. A value for the bias parameter N-o has been estimated with reference to the local GPS-Levelling datum that appears to be 0.705 m with 0.07 m mean square error. The gravimetric height anomalies were compared with height anomalies obtained from GPS-Levelling stations using least square collocation with and without bias adjustment. The bias adjustment minimizes the difference between the gravimetric height anomalies with respect to residual GPS-Levelling data and the standard deviation of the differences drops from 35 cm to 2.6 cm. The results of this study suggest that N-o adjustment may be a good alternative for the fitting of the final gravimetric geoid as is generally done when using FFT methods.
Studia Geophysica Et Geodaetica, 2009, Vol 53, Issue 3, p. 375-388