Aims: This study elucidates the mechanisms by which a nonbacteriocinogenic Carnobacterium piscicola inhibits growth of Listeria monocytogenes. Methods and Results: Listeria monocytogenes was exposed to live cultures of a bacteriocin-negative variant of C. piscicola A9b in co-culture, in a diffusion chamber system, and to a cell-free supernatant. Suppression of maximum cell density (0-3.5 log units) of L. monocytogenes was proportional to initial levels of C. pisciola (10(3)-10(7) CFU ml(-1)). Cell-to-cell contact was not required to cause inhibition. The cell-free C. piscicola supernatant caused a decrease in L. monocytogenes maximum cell density, which was abolished by glucose addition but not by amino acid, vitamin or mineral addition. The fermentate also gave rise to a longer lag phase and a reduction in growth rate. These effects were independent of glucose and may have been caused by acetate production by C. piscicola. 2D gel-electrophoretic patterns of L. monocytogenes exposed to C. piscicola or to L. monocytogenes fermentate did not differ. Treatment with C. piscicola fermentate resulted in down-regulation (twofold) of genes involved in purine- or pyrimidine metabolism, and up-regulation (twofold) of genes from the regulon for vitamin B-12 biosynthesis and propanediol and ethanolamine utilization. Conclusions: A nonbacteriocinogenic C. piscicola reduced growth of L. monocytogenes partly by glucose depletion. Significance and Impact of the Study: Understanding the mechanism of microbial interaction enhances prediction of growth in mixed communities as well as use of bioprotective principles for food preservation.
Journal of Applied Microbiology, 2005, Vol 98, Issue 1, p. 172-183