Consistent production of patulin, chaetoglobosins, and other secondary metabolites in culture and their natural occurrence in fruit products
Penicillium expansum is known for its destructive rot and patulin production in apple juice. According to the literature, P. expansum can, among other compounds, produce citrinin, ochratoxin A, patulin, penitrem A, and rubratoxin B. In this study the qualitative production of metabolites was examined using TLC (260 isolates), HPLC (85 isolates), and MS (22 isolates). The results showed that none of the 260 isolates produced ochratoxin A, penitrem A, or rubratoxin B. However, chaetoglobosin A and communesin B were produced consistently by all 260 isolates. Patulin and roquefortine C were produced by 98% of the isolates. Expansolides A/B and citrinin were detected in 91 and 85% of the isolates, respectively. Chaetoglobosins and communesins were detected in naturally infected juices and potato pulp, whereas neither patulin nor citrinin was found. Because most P. expansum isolates produce patulin, citrinin, chaetoglobosins, communesins, roquefortine C, and expansolides A and B, foods contaminated with this fungus should ideally be examined for chaetoglobosin A as well as patulin.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2004, Vol 52, Issue 8, p. 2421-2428